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Index:

  1. Foreword
  2. Background
  3. Equipment and Services
  4. Marketing
  5. Interest Survey
  6. References
  7. Schematic
  8. Photograph


1. Foreword

In wire drawing, lubrication is used mainly to reduce resistance to sliding between the wire (billet) and the die. The reduction in resistance manifests itself in several ways, among them are:

  1. Reduced drawing force due to reduced coefficient of friction (m)
  2. Reduced die wear
  3. Reduced temperatures on the surfaces of the die and wire
  4. Altered appearance of the surface of the wire
  5. Improved drawability, deterred wire tearing, etc.

The economic results of wire manufacturers optimizing lubrication effectiveness can be:

  1. Increased die life and the accompanying reduction of die inventory and maintenance costs
  2. Increased productivity
  3. Improved product quality

The evaluation of the performance must be conducted under conditions that are as close to the actual production process as possible. This however, can prove very expensive to the wire producer, in time, labor, and wasted product if the testing is done on the production line. Additionally it will be difficult to clean the wire drawing machines of all tested lubricants between evaluations.

Metalforming Incorporated has the technology for the evaluation of the performance of lubricants for fine wire drawing of the manufacturing facility. This technology can accomodate a wide selection of wire materials, die materials and reductions. The basis for this technology is a highly instrumented, laboratory based fine wire drawing machine.

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2. Background

The quantitative dependence of the friction factor (m) on the other process parameters is given by:

m = (2/3) 2/ ln(Ro/Rf)

where:

Ro/Rf is the ratio of the original to final radius of the wire, and

is the optimal semicone angle of the die.

All of the values in the equation above are measured directly, except the friction factor (m). Using the relation expressed above the value of (m) is calculated.

Metalforming Inc. has developed the equipment and procedures necessary to determine the value of (m) for a specific wire/die/reduction combination. Thus, lubricants can be compared using this quantitative value of friction.

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3. Equipment and Services

Metalforming Inc. is offering custom designed equipment for the optimization of wire drawing processes and the evaluation of lubricants. The equipment includes a desk-top bench, PC data acquisition and process control with all the applicable programs for operation and data analysis. Lube circulation and temperature control are optional. Alternately, Metalforming Inc. is offering lubricant and lubrication evaluation services using their laboratory-based equipment.

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4. Marketing

Metalforming Incorporated is an enterprising company with deep rooted base in many traditional metalforming processes and the progressive development of new technologies. In addition to it's sound scientific background and accreditation, it is an entrepreneurial company ready to consider mutually beneficial relationship with established companies. The form of these relationships can be from consulting, training and process optimization to new technology licensing and limited partnerships.

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5. Interest Survey

Metalforming Inc. is planning a seminar on the theory, methods and equipment for lubrication evaluation using fine wire-drawing techniques. This seminar will be held in May 1998 in the MFI. facilities in Allentown, PA. If you have an interest in attending such a seminar, please send an email message to Dr. Avitzur (avitzur@metalforming-inc.com). Please include your name, street address, telephone and email address. We will mail you details.

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The paper entitled, "Lubricant Evaluation Laboratory for Fine Wire Drawing" (ref188 in the Publications listing) is available on this site.


References

For background information see Refs. 18, 180 , 188 and other of Betz's Publication List , as well as the following list:

  1. Avitzur, B. "Metal Forming", Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, Vol. 9, Academic Press Inc., 1992.
  2. Avitzur, B. "Handbook of Metal Forming Processes", John Wiley, New York, 1983.
  3. Styczynski, L., Shi, Jian-Jun, and Avitzur, B., "The Effect of Speed on the Individual Components of Wire Drag During Augmented Hydrostatic Extrusion of Fine Wire", Proceedings of the 1992 NSF Design and Manufacturing Systems Conf., Georgia, Inst. of Tech. Atlanta GA. Jan. 8-10, 1992, pp. 1117-1123.
  4. Evans, W. and Avitzur, B., "Measurement of Friction in Drawing, Extrusion and Rolling", J. of Lub. Tech., Trans. ASME, Series F, Vol. 90, No. 1, Jan. 1968, pp. 72-80.
  5. Wistreich, J. G., "Investigation of the Mechanics of Wire Drawing", Proceedings, The Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Vol.169, 1955, pp. 654-670.
  6. Pugh H. Ll. D., "Recent Developments in Cold Forging", Bullied Memorial Lectures, Vols. IIIA and IIIB, The University of Nottingham Press, 1965.
  7. Bowden, F. P., and Tabor, D., "The Friction and Lubrication of Solids", Oxford University Press, Amen House, London E.C.4, First Edition 1950. 372 pages.
  8. Schey, J. A. (Editor), "Metal Deformation Processes: Friction and Lubrication", Printed by Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 1970, 807 pages.
  9. Dowson, D., History of Tribology", Printed by Longman Group Limited, London, First published 1979, 677 pages.
  10. Blau, P. j., "Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology", ASM Handbook, Vol. 18, printed by the ASM International, 1992, 942 pages.

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Last Modified:
Monday April 26 2010

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