- Equipment and Services
- Interest Survey
In wire drawing, lubrication is used mainly
to reduce resistance to sliding between the wire (billet)
and the die. The reduction in resistance manifests
itself in several ways, among them are:
- Reduced drawing force due to reduced coefficient of
- Reduced die wear
- Reduced temperatures on the surfaces of the die and
- Altered appearance of the surface of the wire
- Improved drawability, deterred wire tearing, etc.
The economic results of wire manufacturers optimizing
lubrication effectiveness can be:
- Increased die life and the accompanying reduction of
die inventory and maintenance costs
- Increased productivity
- Improved product quality
The evaluation of the performance must be conducted under
conditions that are as close to the actual production
process as possible. This however, can prove very expensive
to the wire producer, in time, labor, and wasted product if
the testing is done on the production line. Additionally it
will be difficult to clean the wire drawing machines of all
tested lubricants between evaluations.
Metalforming Incorporated has the technology for the
evaluation of the performance of lubricants for fine wire
drawing of the manufacturing facility. This technology can
accomodate a wide selection of wire materials, die materials
and reductions. The basis for this technology is a highly
instrumented, laboratory based fine wire drawing machine.
The quantitative dependence of the friction
factor (m) on the other process parameters is given
m = (2/3) 2/
Ro/Rf is the ratio of the original
to final radius of the wire, and
is the optimal semicone
angle of the die.
All of the values in the equation above are measured
directly, except the friction factor (m). Using the
relation expressed above the value of (m) is
Metalforming Inc. has developed the equipment and
procedures necessary to determine the value of (m)
for a specific wire/die/reduction combination. Thus,
lubricants can be compared using this quantitative value of
3. Equipment and
Metalforming Inc. is offering custom designed
equipment for the optimization of wire drawing processes and
the evaluation of lubricants. The equipment includes a
desk-top bench, PC data acquisition and process control with
all the applicable programs for operation and data analysis.
Lube circulation and temperature control are optional.
Alternately, Metalforming Inc. is offering lubricant and
lubrication evaluation services using their laboratory-based
Incorporated is an enterprising company with deep rooted
base in many traditional metalforming processes and the
progressive development of new technologies. In addition to
it's sound scientific background and accreditation, it is an
entrepreneurial company ready to consider mutually
beneficial relationship with established companies. The form
of these relationships can be from consulting, training and
process optimization to new technology licensing and limited
Metalforming Inc. is planning a seminar on
the theory, methods and equipment for lubrication evaluation
using fine wire-drawing techniques. This seminar will be
held in May 1998 in the MFI. facilities in Allentown, PA. If
you have an interest in attending such a seminar, please
send an email message to
Avitzur (email@example.com). Please include
your name, street address, telephone and email address. We
will mail you details.
The paper entitled,
Evaluation Laboratory for Fine Wire Drawing" (ref188 in
listing) is available on this site.
For background information see Refs.
and other of
Publication List , as well as the following list:
- Avitzur, B. "Metal Forming", Encyclopedia of Physical
Science and Technology, Vol. 9, Academic Press Inc.,
- Avitzur, B. "Handbook of Metal Forming Processes",
John Wiley, New York, 1983.
- Styczynski, L., Shi, Jian-Jun, and Avitzur, B., "The
Effect of Speed on the Individual Components of Wire Drag
During Augmented Hydrostatic Extrusion of Fine Wire",
Proceedings of the 1992 NSF Design and Manufacturing
Systems Conf., Georgia, Inst. of Tech. Atlanta GA. Jan.
8-10, 1992, pp. 1117-1123.
- Evans, W. and Avitzur, B., "Measurement of Friction
in Drawing, Extrusion and Rolling", J. of Lub. Tech.,
Trans. ASME, Series F, Vol. 90, No. 1, Jan. 1968, pp.
- Wistreich, J. G., "Investigation of the Mechanics of
Wire Drawing", Proceedings, The Institution of Mechanical
Engineers, Vol.169, 1955, pp. 654-670.
- Pugh H. Ll. D., "Recent Developments in Cold
Forging", Bullied Memorial Lectures, Vols. IIIA and IIIB,
The University of Nottingham Press, 1965.
- Bowden, F. P., and Tabor, D., "The Friction and
Lubrication of Solids", Oxford University Press, Amen
House, London E.C.4, First Edition 1950. 372 pages.
- Schey, J. A. (Editor), "Metal Deformation Processes:
Friction and Lubrication", Printed by Marcel Dekker Inc.,
New York, 1970, 807 pages.
- Dowson, D., History of Tribology", Printed by Longman
Group Limited, London, First published 1979, 677 pages.
- Blau, P. j., "Friction, Lubrication, and Wear
Technology", ASM Handbook, Vol. 18, printed by the ASM
International, 1992, 942 pages.