VII. Summary

The desire to make large parts, take large reductions, use high-strength materials, work to net shape (precision flashless closed die forging), and use cold forming to obtain certain physical properties all require high forming forces. These forces may be larger than the capacity of existing machinery. Some possible solutions are:

  1. design larger machines,
  2. use inertia forces to allow smaller machines to do the job,
  3. take many small reductions, as in superimposition of ultrasonic vibrations,
  4. impart localized deformations,
  5. use high-energy-rate forming, such as explosive forming, and
  6. use modeling methods to identify the optimal condition to minimize forming forces.



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